Macquarie is the Australian leader who used terrorism and slaughter to quell hostile Indigenous resistance to invasion and dispossession.
The colonial frontier was a violent location and many people suffered and died. Colonialism wreaked havoc on many cultures around the globe.
Was Governor Macquarie any better or worse than any other colonial administrator?
Over next 150 years it is estimated that over 20,000 Aboriginal Australians were massacred in frontier wars.
Is it fair to pick on Macquarie?
Macquarie orders that surrounded what is called the Appin Massacre in 1816 were quite brutal:
On any occasion of seeing or falling in with the Natives, either in Bodies or Singly, they are to be called upon, by your friendly Native Guides, to surrender themselves to you as Prisoners of War. If they refuse to do so, make the least show of resistance, or attempt to run away from you, you will fire upon and compel them to surrender, breaking and destroying the Spears, Clubs and Waddies of all those you take Prisoners. Such natives as happen to be killed on such occasions, if grown up men, are to be hanged up on Trees in Conspicuous Situations, to Strike the Survivors with the greater terror
Was ‘The Father of Australia” , Lachlan Macquarie, complicit in a mass murder?
The programme asks the question:
When Governor Lachlan Macquarie ordered his soldiers to inflict ‘terror’ a group of aboriginal people at Appin, south of Sydney in 1816, did he then try to cover up what happened next?
The programme notes state:
In this program, we ask whether Macquarie tried to cover up an 1816 massacre of 14 aboriginal men, women and children at Appin, south of Sydney, by soldiers acting on his orders to “strike terror” into the indigenous population.
The participants in the RN programme were historians Grace Karskens and John Connor, journalist Paul Daley, Deputy Chair of the Tharawal Land Council Glenda Chalker.
The Appin Massacre is explored in a new exhibition at the Campbelltown Arts Centre called With Secrecy and Dispatch. The bicentenary of the Appin Massacre is 16 April 2016 when ‘Governor Lachlan Macquarie ordered the Aboriginal people within the region of Appin, NSW, be captured and or shot if they try to escape, as well as the displacement of their communities’.
Using the Appin Massacre as a catalyst, six Aboriginal Australian artists and four First Nation Canadian artists have been commissioned to create new works that either deal directly with the Massacre or draw from the shared brutalities across both nations.
New South Wales Colonial Frontier and Transportation
Govenor Macquarie was one of many actors on the colonial frontier in New South Wales. The colony was a military garrison and a penal settlement. Life was brutal. Life as a transported convict was brutal. Transportation as it was practised in the British Empire was close to slavery. Some in England in the Ant-Transportation League thought it so. A League was established in Sydney in 1849 to opposed landing convicts in Sydney.
The colonial frontier wars in North America and elsewhere
The colonial frontier wars in North America resulted in the deaths of thousands of Indians. There were frontier wars in Africa. The Spanish incursions into South and Central American could be called frontier wars.
‘Sugar slaves’ of Queensland
Were the actions of Macquarie as military administrator any worse than what civil administrators did in to so called ‘sugar slaves’ of Queensland?
According to the Queensland Historical Atlas states:
Australian South Sea Islanders today consider our ancestors to have been the Sugar Slaves. South Sea Islanders, transported to Australia as a cheap source of labour, worked in the development and establishment of the new Queensland sugar industry.
Read more on colonial frontier violence around the world
Read Paul Daley’s full article in the Guardian Australia click here
Governor Lachlan Macquarie, accompanies by Mrs Macquarie, made his final visit to the Cowpastures and the Campbelltown area in January 1822.He inspected the area around Cawdor, Camden Park, Brownlow Hill, and Macquarie Grove.
Maquarie also descended into the Illawarra and travelled through the area around Tom Thumb Lagoon and Lake Illawarra (Allowrie)
Read his diary entries:
Wednesday 9. January 1822.
I set out from Sydney this morning in the Carriage, accompanied by Mrs. Macquarie and Lachlan, at 7 o’clock, on a short Excursion to visit the Revd. Mr. Reddall & Family at Macquarie Field, and the Cow Pastures; having made an appointment with Sir Thomas Brisbane to meet us at the latter Place. —We arrived at Liverpool at 1/2 past 9, Breakfasted at Dillon’s Inn, and staid afterwards at Mr. Moore’s till 12 o’clock. We then pursued our Journey to Macquarie Field — where we arrived at 1 p.m. — and were most kindly & hospitably received by the Host & Hostess.
I found Mr. Meehan here, who had arrived from Bathurst on the day preceding.— My Servants & Baggage for my Tour to Illawarra had also arrived here last Night. —We sat down to Dinner at 5 o’clock, and went early to Bed.—
Thursday 10. January 1822
We got up early, and Mrs. M. and Lachlan set out with me in the Carriage a quarter before 7, o’clock this morning for the Cow Pastures, intending to spend a couple of days at Cawdor the Government Principal Station there.—
We found the Cow Pasture Road, generally, very rough and bad for Travelling and it took us two Hours and a quarter from Mr. Reddall’s to the Ford over the River Nepean at the old Government Hut, which is only a distance of 14 miles.
The Ford itself, and both Banks being very steep, we found much difficulty in passing; but we accomplished it without sustaining any accident. —From the Ford it is near 4 miles to the Government Cottage at Cawdor — where we arrived at a quarter before 10. a.m. the weather being extremely hot at that time. —Mr. David Johnston met us on the Road on the Eastern side of the River Nepean, and conducted us at Cawdor. Here we found Mr. De Arrietta a Spanish Gentleman who has lately obtained a grant at the Cow Pastures.—
This is the first time of Mrs. Macquarie’s visiting Cawdor, which she admires very much.
Nancy Moore followed us in the Curricle from Mr. Reddall’s, with Edmund Sorell — whom Lachlan had asked to accompany him to Cawdor. —We had our Breakfast soon after our arrival.—
At 2. p.m. Sir Thomas Brisbane, attended by Major Ovens, Mr. Oxley, Capt. Antill, and Mr. Murdoch joined us at Cawdor. —The Day being excessively hot, we did not dine till 6, o’clock when we sat down Eight Persons to Dinner.—
The Govt. Cottage at Cawdor has lately been very much improved, and enlarged since I was last here — and is quite sufficient to accommodate us all. —We went early to Bed, intending to ride out very early in the morning.
Friday 11. January 1822
I got up at 5, o’clock this morning — and soon afterwards Sir Thos. Brisbane, Mr. D. Johnston, & Mr. Murdoch set out from Cawdor to Brownlow-Hill to inspect the Govt. stock at that Station. —We had a very pleasant Ride along that rich Tract of Pasture Land extending from Cawdor along Mount Hunter Creek to Brownlow Hill, distant 8 miles from the former. —We inspected the Govt. stock there accordingly — and returned Home to Breakfast at 1/2 past 8 o’clock.—
After Breakfast, we mounted our Horses again and rode to Mr. McArthur’s Farm of Camden — where we inspected all his Improvements and Stock and returned Home again at 2, o’clock; having been this day 7 1/2 Hours on Horse-back.—Mrs. M. Lachlan, Teddy, and Nancy Moore went all in a Cart, on our return Home, to view at a distance Mr. McArthur’s Improvements — and returned Home by 5, o’clock.—We dined at 6 p.m. and went early to Bed, intending to rise very early tomorrow morning. Saturday 12. January 1822.
We all got up this morning at Half past 4 o’clock — and set out from Cawdor at Half past 5, o’clock; Sir Thomas Brisbane travelling with Mrs. M. me and Lachlan in our Carriage. —We crossed the Nepean at the Ford of Macquarie Grove, a Farm belonging to Mr. Hassall, and thence we travelled by the Cow Pasture Road to Mr. Meehan’s Farm of Macquarie-Field — where we arrived at 8, o’clock. —We had Breakfast soon afterwards. —After Breakfast, I accompanied Sir Thomas Brisbane to Liverpool to inspect the Public Buildings there, and remained with him till his departure for Parramatta — when I returned to Macquarie Field. The Revd. Mr. Reddall had Mr. Moore, Mr. Throsby, Dr. Hill, and Mr. Meehan to Dine with us, besides his own Family today.—
Sunday 13. January 1822 —
Mrs. Macquarie, Lachlan, and myself, accompanied by Mr. Meehan — and John and Nancy Moore — went this morning before Breakfast to see John Moore’s Farm in Minto District, adjoining that of Mr. Brooks. —We viewed and examined different parts of it — and Selected the fittest Place for building the House & offices on, which John Moore marked out accordingly. —This Farm is distant about 3 miles from Macquarie-field — and Eight miles from the Town of Liverpool.
In honor of their young Master, John & Nancy Moore have named their farm “Lachlan-Valley”. We returned to Meehan Castle at 9, o’clock to Breakfast.—The Revd. Mr. Reddall went to perform Divine Service at Campbell-Town — but returned Home to Dinner.—We dined at 1/2 past 5 — and went early to Bed.— Monday 14. January 1822
Got up at 1/2 past 5. a.m. At 1/4 past 6. Mrs. M. Lachn. Edmund Sorell & Nancy Moore, set out in the Carriage for Sydney — whilst I, accompanied by Mr. Meehan, set out at the same time on my intended Tour of Inspection to Illawarra, through the Districts of Airds and Appin; the Revd. Mr. Reddall accompanying us to Campbell-Town. —On our arrival there, we ordered Breakfast at Bradbury’s and whilst it was getting ready, I accompanied Mr. Reddall to see his Glebe and the Site he had selected for Building his Parsonage House on. —The Glebe is about 2 miles distant from Town, and very pleasantly situated commanding a fine extensive [view?] of the rich and beautiful District of Aids. —We were absent about an Hour and a Half absent [sic] — and then returned to Brad bury’s where we took a good and hearty Breakfast at Ten o’clock.
After Breakfast we proceeded to take a survey of the Township and the New Church — and which is a very pretty Building. The walls are up to their full Height and fit to receive the Roof, which is preparing and will be put on in the course of the ensuing week. We fixed on the Site of the Burying Ground, within a convenient distance of the Church — and which is to consist of 3 acres of Ground. —The principal Inhabitants assembled to meet us, and expressed themselves highly pleased at the arrangements made on this occasion.— The Revd. Mr. Reddall took his leave of us at 1/4 before 12 at Noon — and returned Home, whilst I and Mr. Meehan pursued our Journey for Illawarra.—
Mr. Bradbury is now building a very good two story Brick-House on his own Farm, and on a very pretty Eminence immediately adjoining Campbell-Town, as an Inn for the accommodation of the Public, and having asked me to give his Farm a name, I have called it “Bradbury Park”.—
Campbell-Town is 13 miles from Liverpool — and 8 miles from Mr. Meehan’s Farm of Macquarie-Field –; it is a very beautiful and centrical situation, surrounded by a rich, Populous Neighbourhood, and making a good stage for Persons travelling to the Southern and Western Districts.–
The Road through Aids and Appin for the first 20 miles from Campbell-Town is tolerably good — but from Mr. Broughton’s Farm all the rest of the way to the Mountain Pass of Illawarra is most execrably bad for any sort of wheel-carriage. —This very bad Road commences at King’s Falls, where we crossed the Head of George’s River very near its source, and from thence nothing can be worse — it being almost impassable for a Cart or Gig — and I confess I wondered at my Baggage Dray and Gig getting on at all without breaking down.
After scrambling over about 8 miles of this horrid rough Road we arrived at 4. p.m. at a Stream of Water in a Deep Valley about 9 miles from Mr. Broughton’s Farm, which I have named “David’s Valley” in honor of Mr. David Johnston who joined us here just as we were about sitting down to Dinner at 6, o’clock; and in this Valley we Pitched our Camp for the Night.—
Tuesday 15. January 1822
We got up at Day-break and had our Baggage Packed up and arranged, sending back the Curricle, and Dray with the heavy Baggage, to Mr. O’Brien’s Farm in Appin; the Road being too rough and bad to admit of their proceeding farther on the Journey to Illawarra. —We therefore put all the Baggage and Provisions required for our Journey on three Pack Horses.—
Mr. Cornelius O’Brien joined us at this station just as we were ready to set out. —
At 10 mins. past 6. a.m. we set forward on our Journey; and after passing over some very bad Road, and crossing the Cataract River near it’s [sic] source, we arrived at the summit of the great mountain that contains the Pass to the Low Country of Illawarra — the Top of this mountain being three miles from our last station. —On our arrival on the summit of the mountain, we were gratified with a very grand magnificent Bird’s Eye view of the Ocean, the 5 Islands, and of the greater part of the low country of Illawarra as far as Red Point. —After feasting our Eyes with this grand Prospect, we commenced descending the mountain at 20 mins. after 8, o’clock. The Descent was very rugged, rocky, and slippery, and so many obstacles opposed themselves to our progress, that it was with great difficulty that the Pack-Horses could get down this horrid steep descent. —At length we effected it, but it took us an Hour to descend altho’ the Descent is only one mile & a Half long. —The whole face of this mountain is clothed with the largest and finest Forest Trees I have ever seen in the Colony. —They consist chicfly of the Black-Butted Gum, Stringy Bark, Turpentine, Mountain Ash, Fig, Pepperment [sic], Box-Wood, Sassafrass, and Red Cedar; but the latter is now very scarce, most of it having been already cut down and carried away to Sydney. —There are also vast Quantities of the Cabbage, Palm, and Fern Trees, growing in the face of the Mountain, the former being very beautiful and of great Height. —
Finding that this mountain has never yet received any particular name, I have christened it the “Regent Mountain”, as it was first descended by Mr. Throsby in the year 1815, when our present King was Regent of the United Kingdom.
We arrived at a Creek containing a very pretty Stream of Fresh running Water about 1 1/2 miles from the foot of the mountain at a qr. past 9, o’clock, and here we halted to Breakfast and to refresh our men and Cattle. —I have named this stream of Fresh Water “Throsby’s Creek”, in honor of Mr. Throsby who first crossed it on his descending the Regent Mountain.
Governor Macquarie then inspected the area around Tom Thumb Lagoon, and Lake Illawarra (or Allowrie)
Wednesday 16. January 1822
We set out from Mr. Brown’s at 1/2 past 8 o’clock to explore the Country to the Southward and Westward; having first sent off our Servants and Baggage towards the Mountain over which the new Road from Illawarra to Appin has recently been made by Mr. O’Brien.
We proceeded through a very rich Country in a southerly direction for two miles, till we arrived on the left Bank of the Macquarie-River, a very pretty Stream of Fresh Water about 20 yards in Breadth, which falls into the Lake — and is full of Fish — with Cedar and other good Timber growing on its Banks. From the Macquarie River we travelled on in a westerly direction to Col. Johnston’s Farm near the foot of the mountains. This Farm is a very fine one, well watered, and contains some very extensive beautiful Meadows bordering on the Lake and River. We continued our Journey still in a westerly direction to Mount Throsby — which we ascended for the purpose of having a view of those parts of Illawarra which I had not time to visit. On our arrival on the summit of this Hill. we had a most extensive fine view of all the low Country to the Southward and Eastward of us — including the Sea, the Lake, and the River. —At 12 at Noon we descended Mount Throsby — and then directed our course backwards, through a fine open Forest, towards Mr O’Brien’s new Road, which we arrived at 2. p.m. —Having rested ourselves & Horses at a fresh water creek, at the foot of the Mountain we were to ascend, for half an Hour, we commenced ascending the first Range at 1/2 past 2; — and at 4. p.m. we arrived on the Top of the Mountain; which having obtained no particular name before, I have christened it “Mount Brisbane” in honor of the new Governor Sir Thomas Brisbane. I rode up the whole of the mountain, which is about two miles long, exclusive of the Ranges leading to the foot of it — which are at least two miles more in length. —The Road is perfectly safe and passable for Cattle, and is what may be termed a good Bridle Road; — and it might he made a good Cart Road with very little more trouble. —In ascending a very steep part of the mountain through some carelessness in the Driver, one of our Pack Horses with his Load, slipped and tumbled over three [text missing?] several times till he was stopped by a large Tree. —We all concluded he was killed, but the Load preserved him, and after being disengaged from it, he got upon his Legs again without being in the least hurt, or wounded. —We came up with, or rather overtook the Baggage about Half way up the Pass, which was fortunate, as we were thus enabled to afford the People in charge of it our assistance. With exception of this accident we all got up Mount Brisbane perfectly safe, and with great ease to ourselves.—
The face of this mountain is also studded with very large fine Timber of the same description as that on the Regent Mountain, but there are more Cedar Trees on the former than on the latter. —I had one noble Cedar (Red) Tree measured on this mountain which measured 21 feet in Diameter and 120 feet in Height; the size of it being greater, and the Tree itself a finer one than I had ever seen before. —The part of it which measured 21 feet in circumference was Ten feet from the Root of it, and continued to be of the same size for 60 feet above the ground. —I also saw here the largest and finest Box Trees I had ever seen in the Colony.
We had a noble extensive view of the Ocean and part of Illawarra from the Summit of Mount Brisbane. —We rested a few minutes on the Top of the Mountain, and then pursued our Journey towards Appin at 20 minutes past 4, o’clock, over a very good Bridle Road, tho’ a little rough and stony. —At 10 minutes past 7 p.m. arrived at a very pretty thick Forest, with good grazing for cattle, distant about Ten miles from the Top of Mount Brisbane. Here we took up our Ground for the Night, our men and cattle being rather tired. This day’s Journey is about 32 miles. —Mr. O’Brien has named this Place Lachlan Forest in honor of my beloved Boy.—
Thursday 17. January 1822
We got up early and Breakfasted — then had our Baggage packed up and sent off, and set out ourselves from Lachlan-Forest at 1/2 past 8, o’clock a.m. After riding Five miles over a tolerable good Road, through an open Forest Country, we arrived at the Cataract River at 1/2 past 9 a.m. the Banks of which are immensely high and rocky — and almost perpendicular. Here Mr. O’Brien succeeded in cutting out and forming a tolerable good Pass on either side of the River, and altho’ very steep he has brought over a Cart & Team of Bullocks through the Passes thus made on each side of the River. It is frightful to look at — but perfectly safe for Cattle and Persons on Horseback. I rode down the Pass on the Right Bank of the River, and up that on the Left Bank without once dismounting.
It appearing to me that Mr. O’Brien has great merit in constructing this Road (which was by subscription) with such few Hands and slender means, I have christened the Pass of the Cataract River after him, namely — “O’Brien’s Pass”. —He had only six men employed on this Line of Road (about 21 miles from Appin to Illawarra) with Sixty Pounds subscribed by the Principal Gentlemen who had large stocks of Cattle at Illawarra. Having crossed to the Appin side of O’Brien’s Pass, we pursued our Journey. —I called on Mrs. Broughton at “Lachlan Vale” 3 miles from the Cataract River, and remained an Hour with her & her Family. I afterwards proceeded on my Journey, calling at Mr. O’Brien’s Farm, where the Baggage was ordered to Halt — and wait our arrival. —Here I quitted my Horse for the Tandem and set out in it for Sydney at 1/2 past 12, o’clock, leaving my Servants & Baggage to follow next day at their leisure. —
I stopt [sic] at Liverpool to change Horses for Half an Hour, then set out again, and arrived at Government House Sydney at Ten minutes past six o’clock; finding my dear Mrs. M. and our Darling Boy in good Health, and sitting down at Dinner, with a few friends, namely Major Antill, Dr. Ramsay, and the Revd. Mr. Reddall.
I had almost forgot to mention that I left my Travelling companions Mr. Meehan, Mr. David Johnston, and Mr. O’Brien at the House of the latter, where they were engaged to dine previous to their proceeding to their respective Homes.
Governor Macquarie returned for his third visit to the Cowpastures in 1820. Macquarie and his party set out from Parramatta Monday 16 October 1820 and journeyed through the Cowpasture in southern New South Wales. They returned to the Cowpasture on 3 November 1820.
Read for yourself Governor Macquarie’s journal of the trip.
Extracts from the Journal of Governor Lachlan Macquarie 1820
Monday 16. October. 1820.
Having resolved on making a Tour of Inspection to the new Country some time since discovered by Charles Throsby Esqr. to the South West of the Cow Pastures, I set out this morning at Half past Six o’clock from Parramatta on my intended Tour in my Carriage, with my old faithful Valet George Jarvis, having previously taken an early leave of all that is dear to me in life.
I sent off my Heavy Baggage on Friday last the 13th. Instant, together with my Servants under charge of Thomas Evans the Orderly Dragoon,
appointed for this duty with orders to halt at Stone Quarry Creek in the Cow Pastures till my arrival there. The Party to accompany me on this Tour consists of Major Antill, Lt. Macquarie, Mr. Meehan, Dr. Reid R. Navy, the Revd. Mr. Cartwright and Mr. Throsby; the two latter, and
Mr. Meehan having appointed to meet me at Liverpool or on the road beyond it. Halted at Liverpool to Breakfast and bait our Horses. At
9 o’clock set out from Liverpool; the Revd. Mr. Cartwright and Mr. Meehan having joined me there. Travelled in my Carriage by the
Bringelly and Cow Pasture Roads, to the Ford of the River Nepean at the Governor’s Hut where I was met by Mr. David Johnston the Supdt. of Govt.Stock and Mr. Charker the Prinl. Overseer of Govt. Stock, to guide the Carriage across the River and afterwards to the Prinl. Govt. StockYard.
I crossed the Ford on Horseback and found it very firm and good. The Carriage also passed it without any difficulty. After passing the Ford, I
went again into the Carriage to the Govt. Stock Yard, travelling all the way through a beautiful rich Parklike Tract of Country; the Stock Yard being 3 miles from the Ford. From the Govt. Cottage built some time since for the residence of the Overseer of Stock, there is a very fine Picturesque view of the Surrounding Country and of Mount Hunter in the foreground there being most excellent Pasturage for the Government cattle at this station. I inspected the Govt. Herds, consisting of 550 Head of young Cows & Steers, in two separate Herds. After inspecting the Cattle, we were entertained by Mr. Johnston with a very neat cold collation, wine & spirits which we all partook of very cheerfully.
Having finished our repast I mounted my Horse Sultan and rode along with the other Gentlemen over the Hills by a short cut to Stone Quarry Creek; Joseph proceeding the longer way, by Mr. McArthur’s Camden Farm to the same station, having by that route 14 miles to go which we go in 10 on Horseback. We passed through some very rich verdant Vallies between Mounts Taurus and Hunter before we ascended the Ridge which
connects them. We stopped for Half an Hour at the large Govt. new Paddock within Half a Mile of Stone Quarry Creek to examine the Govt. Invalid Herd at that station and found them greatly improved. This is the station where the Wild Cattle are first brought when caught to be
reclaimed. The Stockmen had the good fortune of driving in 19 Head this morning which I found in a separate Paddock and in very tolerable good condition.
From the New StockYard, we pursued our Journey to Stone Quarry Creek where we arrived at 1/2 past 4 o’clock and found all our Servants and
Baggage all snug and safe encamped on the South Side of the Creek. Joseph arrived with the Carriage in half an Hour after us. The Servants stupidly enough, had not Pitched our Tents; neither had they prepared any Dinner for us, which was still worse; but, as we had all made a hearty meal at Mr. Johnston’s, it was of the less consequence. Our Tents were immediately Pitched and the Cook soon roasted a couple of Fowls for us, and we sat down to a very good Dinner at 6 o’clock. Before I left the Govt. Stock Yard, where we first Halted and took our Lunch today, I was so much pleased with the Beauty of the Situation of that spot, that I was induced to name it “Cawdor” in honor of my dearest Elizabeth’s Family; this Place having no particular name or designation before. I ordered also that two addl. Rooms should be added to the Cottage at Cawdor for my own and Succeeding Governors’ accommodation whenever I may happen to visit this part of the Country.We
sat a very short time at Dinner had Tea and went early to Bed.
Tuesday 17th. October 1820.
We all got up by 5 o’clock this morning had the Baggage loaded and Breakfasted at 1/2 past 5 o’clock. The whole of the Baggage did not get
off, however till 7 o’clock. Wishing to see some parts of the Country where the carriage could not travel through I desired Joseph to follow the Baggage with it, whilst I mounted Sultan and rode with the gentlemen of my suite and Mr. David Johnston and Charker who accompanied me yesterday from Cawdor to the StockYard at Stone Quarry Creek. We rode over some very fine rich Pasture Grounds and crossed several gentle Hills admirably well adapted for sheep. I also examined a most eligible situation on the North Bank of this Creek for a Township whenever this desirable part of the Country is Settled.Mr. Johnston & Charker accompanied us for about 7 miles on the way to Bargo and on our getting
on the regular made Road by which the Carriage and Baggage went, they took their leave of us to return to Cawdor.
I entrusted Mr. Johnston with a Letter I had written last night to Mrs. M. with directions to forward it to her to Parramatta.We overtook the Carriage and Baggage soon after we had crossed the Bargo River, and were soon afterwards joined by Mr. Throsby as we Passed through Bargo. This is rather a barren Country, very few Parts of it being fit for Cultivation. After passing through Bargo, we entered a very long Barren Scrubby Brush of 9 miles in extent now named Kennedy’s Brush in honor of the Person of that name who first passed through it with the Natives. We then entered the Tract of Country called Mittagong, and at Half past 2 o’clock arrived at Kannabygle’s Plains, where we encamped and Halted for this day; this Place being 24 miles in a South westerly direction from Stone Quarry Creek which is rather too long a Journey for Heavy Loaded carts, some of which did not arrive on the Ground for Two Hours and a quarter after the two light carts had come to their Ground; some parts of the Road being very rough and stoney. The Ground we have encamped on today is a very pretty spot, on the edge of a rich extensive Meadow, with a chain of fine Fresh Water Ponds in front of our Tents, and excellent Forage for our cattle. We dined at six, Drank Tea at 8, and retired to Bed a little after 9 o’clock.
Governor Macquarie proceeded into southern New South Wales and returned to the Cowpasture weeks later.
Saturday 4. November 1820.
It rained a good deal in the course of the Night but was fair when we got up at 5 this morning. We Breakfasted a little before 6 o’clock, and the
last of the Bagage, [sic] and ourselves set out a qr. before 7. It came on pretty smart rain at that hour. Travelling through Stone Quarry Creek &
southern parts of the Cow Pastures, and Mr. McArthur’s Farms of upper & lower Camden, where we stopt to take some Refreshment and
having also examined the Govt. Flocks of Sheep, we arrived at Cawdor at a qr. after 4. p.m. where we found all our Baggage had arrived a few
minutes only before us; the Road they came being only 24 miles, while our Route hither being circuitous was at least 35 miles.
We viewed all the Govt. Cattle here & found them in very fine order; Dressed & dined at Six drank Tea at 8 and went to Bed at 9 o’clock.
We found Mr. David Johnston Supdt. of Govt. Stock, waiting for us at Cawdor.
Sunday 5. November 1820
This being a Resting & Halting Day, we slept a little longer and did not get up till 6 o’clock this morning and Breakfasted between 7 & 8 o’clock.
At 9, we set out on a long Ride to see the Govt. Herds stationed at Lowe’s Hill to the Northward of this Station distant about 7 miles. After
we had seen and examined the Cattle, we travelled for 2 or 3 miles more along the Left Bank of the River Nepean, opposite to Coppetty then
returned to the Hill hitherto called (unauthorizedly) Lowe’s Hill which commands a most noble extensive prospect and which I have now named (at the particular request of Commissr. Bigge) “BrownlowHill” after his friend Lord Brownlow; and from thence proceeded by the Range of Hills
leading to Mount Hunter for the purpose of seeing some of the Wild Cattle in their natural state. In the course of our Ride we fell in with 3 or 4 small Herds, some of which we hunted, and the Commissioner enjoyed the sport amazingly.
After a very pleasant Excursion, and riding about 25 miles, we returned to Camp at 1/2 past 2 o’clock. On my arrival I had the felicity of receiving a Packet of Letters dated yesterday from my beloved Elizabeth and Lachlan, conveying to me the joyful intelligence of their being both in good Health; but this gratifying news was greatly clouded by the accounts of an event of a most awful nature that might have at once deprived me of all that makes Life to me valuable namely the Govt. House at Parramatta having been struck by Lightning yesterday morning at Ten o’clock; but through the interposition of Divine Providence, no injury was done to any living Creature. How thankful I ought to be to God for this escape and I am devoutly so! The Commissr. having resolved on going to sleep at Mr. Oxley’s tonight, we dined today at 4 o’clock, to enable him to cross the River before dark. He accordingly left us with his own immediate Suite at 6 o’clock. Messrs. Jas. & Wm. McArthur dined with us they being at present residing at their Father’s Farm of Lower Camden. We had no sooner returned Home from our Ride this afternoon than it came on very heavy Rain. We drank Tea at 7 and retired to Rest at 9 then raining very heavy.
Monday 6. November
Got up at 5 this morning. It rained all Night but is now fair. Sent off the Baggage at 6 across the Nepean, and set out from Cawdor in half
an Hour afterwards. Called at Mr. Oxley’s where I Breakfasted with the Commissioner. Left that at 10. a.m. and arrived at Parramatta at 3 p.m.
Governor Macquarie made a second visit to the Cowpastures in 1815.
It is 200 years since Governor Macquarie journeyed through the Cowpasture and 2015 is the bicentenary year visit to the local area.
On Macquarie’s 1815 journey to the Cowpasture he travelled with a group of colonial notables or gentlemen as he called them.
Amongst those accompanying Macquarie were William Cox, the road builder over the Blue Mountains, explorer and builder of some of Windsor’s notable buildings. There was also John Oxley of Kirkham, surveyor general, explorer and naval officer, as well as Captain Henry Antill of Jarvisfield, soldier, explorer and farmer.
Another, who was an emancipist James Meehan who was originally transported for his part in the 1798 Irish rebellion, and was deputy surveyor general and settler. There was also Thomas Campbell vice-regal secretary to the governor and Rowland Hassall of Macquarie Grove, the superintendent of the government stock.
On this journey Macquarie called in at Camden Park, Appin, Stonequarry Creek, and climbed down into Burragorang Valley. The party inspected the wild cattle south of the Nepean River, stopped at Macquarie Grove, climbed Mount Taurus and proceeded through the Mount Hunter area.
Read for yourself Governor Macquarie’s diary of the trip.
Extracts from the Diary of Governor Lachlan Macquarie 1815
Wednesday. 4 October 1815 —
Breakfast at 8. a.m. and Set out from Camp in Half an Hour afterwards to inspect the several Farms in the District of Appin, and some of the intermediate ones in the Districts of Upper Minto and Airds. — Passed through Mr. Mc.Arthur’s Farm of Lower Cambden, [sic] where I
stopt [sic] for about a quarter of an Hour to examine a Piece of Ground in rear thereof, which Mrs. Mc.Arthur had Solicited might be added to that Farm, in consequence of her having by mistake built a small Cottage on it. — After having looked at the Land, and seeing no
reasonable objection thereto, I acquiesced in her request, and accordingly directed the Surveyor General to locate and mark out the Piece of Ground in question for her – which may be about Sixty acres.
From Lower Cambden [sic] Farm we proceeded to Mr. Davidson’s Farm called Manangle, where we crossed the River Nepean into the District of Airds, first passing through Horrax’s and afterwards thro’ several other smaller Farms, some few of which were tolerably well
improved, and the Crops in the Ground Iooking well and Healthy. — At 11 a.m. Entered the District of Appin at Mr. Uther’s Farm, which is a very good and a very pretty well improved one on the slop[e] of a High Hill, on the Summit of which he has erected his House. — Mr.
Uther’s Crops look well and promise to be very good and plentiful. — From Mr. Uther’s we passed on to Mr. Hume’s Farm, which is also much improved – but his Crops do not look so well or so promising as the last Farm we passed through. —
From Mr. Hume’s Farm, we proceeded by a short but very rough Road to the Farm of Wm. Broughton Esqr. which he has been pleased to name “Lachlan Vale”. — Here he is now building a large one story weather Boarded House with two Wings, on a very lofty Eminence Commanding a very extensive prospect. — Mr. Broughton has cleared a considerable proportion of his Farm, and has some fine looking Fields of Wheat growing, looking healthy & promising.
From Mr. Broughton’s we proceeded to the next Farm belonging to his Brother in Law Mr. John Kennedy, within a few Hundred yards of one another. —
Mr. Kennedy has done a great deal in improving his Farm; having cut down much Timber, and having now several extensive Fields of very fine looking Wheat, with a good Farm House and Garden. — In consideration of Mr. Kennedy’s industry, and great exertions to improve his present Farm (200 acres), I have promised him an additional grant of 100 acres immediately adjoining his present one. —
We halted and rested for about Half an Hour at Mr. Kennedy’s, where we partook of a slight Refreshment of Bread & Wine.
On our arrival at Mr. Kennedy’s Farm I was much concerned to find my poor Horse Cato very lame. — I discovered early after setting out this morning that he was a little Stiff in his movements, but was in hopes it would go off on his getting a little warm. I was however disappointed, for he continued a little Stiff all Day, and became very lame at Mr. Kennedy’s on getting Cool. — I had no other Horse to ride however, and therefore was forced to use him still. — From Mr. Kennedy’s, we proceeded to see the Farm of Mr. Sykes about Half a mile further to the Southward – and at present the most Southern one in Appin. — This man has, with small means, made wonderful exertions, having cleared and cultivated a large proportion of his Farm, and there is every appearance of his having an abundant Crop of Wheat this Season. —
In consideration of Sykes’s industry, I have promised him an addition of Seventy acres adjoining immediately his present one – which will make his whole Farm 150 acres. — Sykes’s farm is supposed to be about 20 miles distant from the Ground we set out from this morning, and we have at least Ten Miles to ride to our next Ground or Station at the StoneQuarry Creek in the Cow Pastures, whither all our Servants and Baggage proceeded this morning at the same time we set out for Appin. —
At 2 P.M. Set out from Sykes’s farm on our return to the Cow Pastures; and crossing the River Nepean at Mr. Riley’s Farm, and at a very rough steep Pass (which I have named “Campbell’s Pass” in honor of Mr. Paymaster Campbell), we arrived at the Stone Quarry Creek at 4 P.M. after riding 8 miles over a beautiful Country thither in the Cow Pastures. Here we found all our servants, Cattle, and Baggage had arrived safe about an Hour before us. — We saw only 3 or 4 Wild Bulls in our Journey this afternoon between Campbell’s Pass and StoneQuarryCreek.
Our Ride this day could not have been less than 28 miles. — We sat down at 6 P.M. to a very good Dinner, Drank Tea, and went to Bed between 9 and 10,O’Clock. —
Thursday 5 October. —
Breakfasted at 6,O’Clock this morning, and set out for the Natai Mountains at 7 –, arrive on the farthest Verge of the Table Land of the Natai Mountains at Half past 9,O’Clock – disce. bymeasurement of the Perambulator 8¼ miles. – From this Table Land we had a fine view of a
very deep Ravine or Glen below us – which leads to the Natai River; – the mountains on either Side being an immense Height from the Bottom – not less than 8 or 900 Feet High. —
We proceeded on Horseback by a circuitous route to this Glen for 2½ miles through very intricate thick Forest and Brush, at the termination of which we arrived at the Top of a very deep rocky Gulley – which in many places appeared to be almost perpendicular – and down which it was impossible to go on Horseback. — There being, however, no other way of going to the Natai River, we determined to leave our Horses at the top of this deep Gulley (– called by our guide “Brimstone Gulley” –) and to descend on foot, guided by Warbey and the Native “Boodbury.” —
Mr. Hassall not liking the appearance of the rugged Descent, preferred remaining at the Top of the Gulley with the Servants and Horses. — The rest of the Party and myself Commenced to descend at ½ past 10, and after a most tiresome scrambling walk reached the Right Bank of the River Natai at 50 minutes past 11,O’Clock, being one Hour and 20 minutes in getting thither – the distance by Computation from the Top of the Gulley to the River being 3¼ miles. — We were all very much fatigued by the time we got to the River and therefore rested there for an Hour, where we had each a Glass of Cherry Brandy and a Biscuit to refresh us; Major Antill having carried with him a Pint Bottle of this good stuff. —
The Natai River [sic] is here about the Size of George’s River – about ten yards in breadth – and is a very pretty stream; having fine open Forest Land on the Left or opposite Bank of it, and which sort of Land continues for Nine Miles along its Banks until this River unites with the Warragombie, by the account given of it to us by our guide John Warbey. — At Ten minutes before 1 P.M. Set out from the Natai River on our Return, and after a most fatiguing tiresome scrambling walk of 1 Hour and 25 minutes, arrived at the Top of this tremendous Gulley, where we found Mr. Hassall, our Servants, and Horses impatiently waiting our return. — From the near resemblance between them, I have named this Stupendous Valley or Ravine “Glencoe”.
After getting back to the TableLand of the Natai Mountains, we proceeded on our return to Camp by a different Route to that we came by from thence; travelling back by a more Northern Track, and passing through some very fine Grazing Country tollerably [sic] well watered, but were much Surprised to meet so few of the Wild Cattle during our Excursion outwards and Homewards; seldom meeting with a larger Herd than 10 or 12 Head, and those principally Bulls. — We reached our Camp at ½ past 5,O’Clock; having travelled this day only
30 miles. —
I learned this Evening on my return to Camp for the first time that my Greyhound Dog Oscar had been hurt severely Hunting a Kangaroo two days since at Mattalling, when taken out from thence on Tuesday morning by the Cook and Jack Moore along with Dennison the Guide
to hunt in that Forest. I was very angry at their taking so daring a liberty. — I ordered the poor Animal to be taken particular care of, and to be carried in one of the Carts till he recovers. —
Friday 6 October.
Breakfasted at 6 a.m. and at 7,O’Clock Set out from Camp to see and examine the Tract of Country to the Southward of the Stone Quarry Creek called “Great Bargo”. — At ½ past 9,O’Clock, after riding about 8 miles, we arrived at and crossed the Bargo River, which is a small Branch of the Nepean, and divides Bargo from the proper CowPastures.—
On entering Bargo we found the Country Barren and very bare of Feed for Cattle, but on advancing a fewmiles into the Country we found both the Land and Grazing improve a little but far from
being very good. Here Mr. Oxley and Mr. Moore (with my permission) have large Herds of Horned Cattle grazing; but so many of them have died that these Gentlemen intend removing them immediately from this Country.
After halting a few minutes at Mr. Oxley’s StockYard, we proceeded to that part of Bargo where a great number of Trees have been blown down by some violent Tempest, and appears as if they had been felled on purpose to clear the Land. —
From this Place we proceed to view that part of the Great Branch of the River Nepean where the Bargo Branch forms a junction with it, and where the Banks of the former are very high and Rocky. The River runs here nearly N. East, and South West. — On the opposite side is Little Bargo, or Wallamalla, adjoining the District of Appin, from which it is separated by a very deep Creek or Gulley. — Mr. Broughton’s Farm (which he has called “LachlanVale”) in Appin lies in a North East Direction from the Point where we thus took our Station to view the wild and grand scenery of the Banks of the River Nepean. —
At 11 a.m. Set out from the Banks of the Nepean on our way back to Camp. — Halted again at Mr. Oxley’s StockYard to rest our Horses for Half an Hour. — Saw here three very young Emus belonging to Mr. Oxley’s Overseer, not more than 10 or 12 Days old. — I desired the Stockmen to inform the Overseer (who was out in the Bush) when he came Home that I wished to Purchase his 3 young Emus if he was disposed to sell them, and if so to bring them to me to Sydney soon.
We crossed the Bargo River at the same Place as before into the proper Cow Pastures, and returned Home to Camp by a different and more Southerly Track than the one we went out by; arriving in Camp at 4,O’Clock, after a ride of 38 miles. — We saw several small Herds of
the Wild Cattle during this day’s Excursion, and observed many of their Tracks even in Bargo.—
Saturday 7 October. —
Breakfasted at 6,O’Clock, and sent off our Baggage from StoneQuarry Creek at 8, for Mr.Hassall’s Farm called “MacquarieGrove” on the East side of the River Nepean, where we next intend to Encamp; setting out ourselves immediately after sending off the Baggage, in order
to explore the Country lying between the Stone QuarryCreek more westerly than the route we came by, and extending to Mount Hunter Creek.
On the Baggage going away I was concerned to observe that my poor Dog Oscar looked very ill and much reduced in Strength. — I ordered him to be conveyed carefully in the Caravan.
After travelling over several beautiful Valleys and high Ridges alternately, we ascended at the Southern Extremity of Mount Taurus at ½ past 9,O’Clock, and soon after reaching the Top of that mountain, we came up with and apprehended two men named Michael Mc.Grath a Freeman,
and Dennis Bryan a Convict, both residing on a Farm in the District of Appin through which we had passed a few days before. —
Each of these men had a Bag containing fresh Beef on his Back, and which they acknowledged was part of one of the Heifers belonging to the Wild Herds the Property of the Crown, and which Heifer they had killed early this morning, having come hither from their Farm for this purpose. — I ordered them to be sent in the first instance to Mr. Hassall’s Farm, in order to be sent from thence to the Gaol at Sydney and committed by Mr. Cox to take their Trial. —
After taking a view of the Surrounding Country from the Top of Mount Taurus, we proceeded along the High Ridge that connects it with Mount Hunter, from the Top of which we had a very extensive view of the Country lying to the Northward and westward of us, including the
Blue Mountains. — Having rested ourselves and Horses for about Half an Hour on the Highest part of Mount Hunter, we commenced to descend the mountain at 2,O’Clock on the North side of it, and reached the Plains below on that side in about a quarter of an Hour.
From the foot of Mount Hunter we proceeded in a north westerly direction towards Mount Hunter Creek for about Seven Miles of beautiful open Forest rich Ground, containing the richest Herbage and finest Grazing I have yet seen in any part of the Colony, the whole being extremely well
watered either by Ponds or the Creek, and the Country beautifully diversivied [sic] by gentle undulating Hill and Dale alternately. —;
Having reached Mount HunterCreek, we proceeded in a Northern direction towards the River Nepean, travelling over some [some] very pretty
Hills and Vallies for about Five Miles before we reached the River; this last Tract of Land being admirably wellsuited for Sheep Farms. —
The Land lying between Mount Hunter, the Creek, and the River, which I have this day travelled over being well calculated for that purpose, it is
my intention to form an Establishment here for at least Three Separate Herds of the Government Horned Cattle, at three distinct Stations. —
We crossed the River Nepean at a Ford immediately below Mr. Hassall’s Farm, and encamped there at 4,O’Clock, having been 8 Hours on Horseback and rode about 30 miles. We found our Baggage had arrived about Half an Hour before us at “MacquarieGrove”, which is the name Mr. Hassall has been so good to give to this very finely situated and beautiful Farm. As soon as we had rested a little, I wrote a short Letter to Mrs. Macquarie before Dinner, giving her an account of our safe arrival here. — We dined at 6,O’Clock in a Room in Mr. Hassall’s FarmHouse. —
Sunday 8 October. —
We Breakfasted at 8 OClock this morning and had Divine Service performed in the Veranda ofMr. Hassall’s House at 10,O’Clock, the whole of our Party, including Mr. Hassall’s Family, and all our own attendants being present. —
Between 9 and 10,O’Clock this morning my poor favorite beautiful Greyhound Oscar died in great agony, to my great concern and mortification, having had him now upwards of Four Years. I ordered him to be buried in a part of the Farm of Macquarie Grove! —
At Noon I rode out to view some of the Farms in Upper Minto lying along the River Nepean as far as the Boundary Line between them and District of Appin; then passing into the District of Airds, we rode through several Farms in that District and returned Home through Mr. Allan’s
and Mr. Throsbey’s [sic] Farms by a different Track to that we took going out; – returning to our Camp at Macquarie Grove at 4,O’Clock, after a ride of 22 miles. — We sat down to a very good Dinner at 6,O’Clock, and at 7, I had the happiness of receiving a Letter from Mrs.
Macquarie, dated Friday last, giving me the delightful intelligence that her own Health was much better than it was when I left her, and that our darling Boy was in perfect good Health.—
I wrote to Mrs. M. in reply to this Letter before I went to Bed – to be forwarded to her by way of Liverpool tomorrow morning. — Not requiring the Services of John Warbey any longer as a guide for the Cow Pastures, I have this day discharged him; intending to pay him at the rate of 20/. Str. per Day for the time he has attended me, including 10/. per day for the Hire of his Horse. — He has now been Seven Days in my Service including this Day. —
Monday 9 October. 1815.
Breakfasted at ¼ past 6,O’Clock this morning, and sent off our Servants and Baggage at ¼ past 8, for our next Encamping Ground on Mr. Bent’s Farm in the Bringelly District; — [name omitted] Cosgrove going with the Baggage as a Guide to conduct it by the safest and best Road. — I discharged the two other Guides Neale and Dennison this morning, and also two of the Carts which had been hired by Mr. Moore at Liverpool for carrying Corn for my Horses; agreeing to pay for the said Carts at the rate of 10/. Pr. Day for the time they have been employed, including this present Day. —
I set out with my Suite from Macquarie Grove at ½ past 8,O’Clock this morning for the Cook and Bringelly Districts, halting at each of the Farms in our course along the River the whole of the way. — Some few of these Farms were well enclosed and Cultivated, but generally very
little has been done by any of the Settlers in these two Districts, the Lands being still nearly in a state of nature. —
The Farms belonging to Mr. Hannibal Mc.Arthur, Mr. William Wentworth, Mr. Secretary Campbell and Mr. Bent (now Doctr. Wentworth’s) are all very fine ones; especially Mr. Secry. Campbell’s, which is one of the richest and best Farms in the Colony. Mr. Campbell has done a great deal already towards improving his Farm, having Fenced in considerable parts of it, and cleared about 200 acres of ground, part of which is
sown with Wheat – and which looks very promising. —
On arriving at what are called the KobbattyHills, we overtook our Servants and Baggage, one of my Carts having been upset going up a steep Hill through the carelessness and obstinacy of the Driver – but no damage or injury was occasioned by this accident – and the whole
went on again as soon as the Cart was uprighted and loaded. — We halted until this accident was rectified, which gave us an opportunity of ascending the highest of the Kobbatty Hills and from thence having a very fine extensive view of the surrounding Country.
In November 1810 Governor Lachlan Macquarie (1762-1824) and Mrs Elizabeth Macquarie visited the Cowpastures. On that occasion, the Governor met the Dharawal people and also Elizabeth Macarthur. Two hundred years later to the day, in 2010, Her Excellency Professor Marie Bashir AC CVO Governor of New South Wales visited the same locality and met descendants of the Dharawal people and the Macarthur family.
More than 300 people were part of the crowd that witnessed Governor Professor Marie Bashir unveil a plaque at Baragil lagoon where Governor Macquarie’s party camped. (Macarthur Chronicle 23 November 2010)
Glenda Chalker told those assembled for the celebrations that the Dharawal people had an important role in establishing Camden Park. They formed close bonds with the Macarthur family and remained on the property until the 1970s. (The District Reporter 22 November 2010)
Governor Macquarie met Mrs Elizabeth Macarthur on Camden Park in what he called a ‘small miserable hut’ on Monday 19 November 1810. (see extract below)
Belgenny Farm used archaeologists to try and locate the location of Macquarie’s ‘small miserable hut’ that Mrs Elizabeth Macarthur lived in during her visits to Camden Park. The dig took place during May 2009 under the supervision of archaeologist Dr Ted Higginbotham. (Camden Advertiser, 13 May 2009)
The dig had a staff of 15 volunteers and four staff who carefully uncovered the footings. The dig uncovered the foundations of a typical 1820s two bedroom convict hut, and discovered a third room. Dr Higginbotham stated that the dig unfolded like a ‘detective story’. (Camden Narellan Advertiser, 24 November 2010)
In 1810 Governor Lachlan Macquarie came out to do a tour of inspection of the Cowpastures. These are extracts from his diaries he kept on his journey. He left Sydney with his wife, who travelled in a carriage on Tuesday 6 November 1810.
Read for yourself in the words of the Governor Macquarie what he thought as he travelled over the Cowpastures over 200 years ago.
Extracts from the Diary of Governor Lachlan Macquarie 1810
Friday 16 November
we arrived at the Government Hut close to the East Bank of the Nepean River at Half past 9 o’clock, being a distance of 26 measured miles in three Hours and a half. — The Country through which we passed between Parramatta and the Nepean was generally an open Forest, a tolerable good Soil, and the Road pretty good. — There being very little Water in the River at this time, we crossed it at the usual Ford in our Carriage with great ease and safety;
We passed through Mr. McArthur’s first Farm, called by the natives “Benkennie”, and arrived at our Halting Place, called “Bundie”, at half past 1 o’clock in the afternoon, being six miles in a South West Direction from the Ford. –We came in the Carriage all the way, through a very fine rich Country and open Forest, and on the way to our Ground we met two or three small Parties of the Cow-Pastures Natives — the Chief of whom in this Part is named Koggie; who with his wife Nantz, and his friends Bootbarrie, Young Bundle, Billy, and their respective Wives, came to visit us immediately on our arrival at Bundie.
The Servants and Baggage did not reach the Ground till after 3 o’clock in the afternoon and immediately on their arrival our Tents were Pitched and our little Camp was formed on a beautiful Eminence near a Lagoon of fine fresh Water — the Tents fronting the South West — in a very fine open Forest within about 3 miles of the foot of Mount Taurus — and Four Mount Hunter; the latter being to the Northward, and the former to the Southward of us.
At 5 p.m. we sat down Eight at Table to a most comfortable Dinner; Mrs. M. tho’ so young a Campaigner having provided every requisite to make our Tour easy, pleasant, and happy — and we all feel much pleased with one-another — and with our present manner of Life. Being all a little tired, we went early to Bed this Night, after placing Fires around us, and a Watch to guard us from the Wild Cattle.
Saturday 17 November
We got up pretty early — and during the Night we heard the Wild Cattle Bellowing in the Woods. — Mr. Blaxland and Warlby went out early in the morning and shot a Wild Bull, which was brought in to Camp for the use of Servants and our other numerous attendants. —
In the course of this Day’s Excursion, which was through a beautiful rich Country consisting of Open Forest and Hills and Dales, we met with several numerous Herds of the Wild Cattle,
Sunday 18th November.—
Being rather a little fatigued after our Excursion of yesterday, we took a good long sleep and did not Breakfast till Nine o’clock this morning; and while we were at it, we were visited by Mrs. McArthur, who had come the Evening before to the Cow Pastures to look after her Farms and fine numerous Flocks of Sheep in this part of the Country. — As we asked Mrs. McArthur to dine with us today, she expressed a desire to ride about the Country with us during this day’s Excursion, which was of course readily assented to. — We accordingly set out on Horseback from Bundie at 11 o’clock to visit Mount Taurus and Mount Hunter, both of which are close in the vicinity of our little Camp; the former being about 4 miles S.W. of it, and the latter about 6 miles N. West of it. — We first ascended Mount Taurus, riding to the very top of it, from which we had a very fine extensive Prospect of the whole of circumjacent Country. — From Mount Taurus we proceeded by a long Ridge of Hills to Mount Hunter, and on the way thither met two or three Herds of the Wild Cattle, which allowed us to come very near them; and one of the Herds at first made directly at us but were scared away from us by the noise and shouting of our Guide and other Attendants. The view from the summit of Mount Hunter was also very fine and extensive; but I confess I was much disappointed with respect to the Height of both it and Mount Taurus, which hardly deserve to be called Mountains, and would only be classed as Hills in most other Country. — We returned home. by a different route from Mount Hunter, through a fine open Forest, to our Tents at Bundie, where we arrived about 2 o’clock; and after resting ourselves there a little while and taking some refreshment, we all set out to see Manangle a fine extensive Farm of 2000 acres belonging to Mr. Walter Davidson, situated on the Banks of the Nepean, and distant only about three miles from our Camp South East of it. — It is a beautiful situation and excellent rich Land for both Tillage and Pasture, with a fine large Lagoon in the Center of it, which is called Manangle, and is the native name of this Farm. — After looking at the River Nepean here and viewing the Farm, we returned to Camp again at 5 o’clock to Dinner, which we found ready for us
During this day’s Excursion we were-attended by some of the Natives, one of whom amused us very much by climbing up a high Tree to catch a Guanna, which he did in a very dextrous manner. In the course of our morning ride we were also much entertained with a Fight between some wild Bulls of two different Herds, which had accidentally met in consequence of being chased by some of our attendants.
Monday 19th November.—
Having seen all the Land in this Neighbourhood and also several different Herds (amounting in all perhaps to about 600 Head) of the Wild Cattle, I determined on breaking up our little Camp at Bundie this morning after Breakfast and recrossing the Nepean, after viewing the Land to the Northward of Mr. McArthur’s Farms on this same side of the River. —We all set out accordingly at half past 9 o’clock, having left our Baggage and Servants to follow us leisurely to the River. We called at Benkennie on Mrs. McArthur, with whom we sat for a little while in a small miserable Hut, and then pursued our way to the Ford, where we arrived at 11 o’clock; and having sent the Carriage across, we mounted our Horses to look at the Country in this Neighbourhood for a few miles to the Northward.