Charles Cowper · Colonialism · Cultural Heritage · Economy · Heritage · History · Lost Sydney · Maryland · Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences Powerhouse Museum · Railway · Sydney Railway Company · Technology · Thomas Barker · Transport · Uncategorized · Wivenhoe

A Camden connection to the first railway line in New South Wales

The Sydney Railway Company

According to Alan Birch writing in the Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, the Sydney Railway Company was incorporated in 1849 with capital of £100,000 to build a railway line between Sydney and Parramatta and promised an optimistic return on capital of 8% (Birch 1957).  

Source: Birch, 1957, JRAHS

Camden connections to the railway

One of the directors of the Sydney Railway Company was Thomas Barker who established Maryland at Bringelly in the 1850s. He developed the farm Maryland as a Sydney gentleman’s country retreat and started building his hilltop homestead in 1854. Barker was a skilled engineer and millwright and built a large windmill at Darlinghurst in 1826. He had extensive landholdings in the Yass District, on the Goulburn Plains and along the Murrumbidgee, and our local area in the Cowpastures. A successful Sydney businessman and philanthropist, he was one of the earliest promoters of railways in New South Wales and, along with a number of other colonial gentlemen, paid for the survey between Sydney and Goulburn.

Another company director was Charles Cowper, a New South Wales politician, who owned Wivenhoe. Cowper was manager of the railway but quit when the NSW colonial government appointed the attorney-general as company president. The company ran into financial issues with cost over-runs as the price of land rose during the gold rush. The government extended a loan to the company of £150,000 and appointed three additional directors.  Cowper returned to politics and convinced the government to take over the floundering project, which it did in 1854. The company had the honour of being the first railway company that was nationalised in the British Empire. Cost over-runs meant that the 1849 estimate of £2,348 a mile eventually blew-out to over £40,000 a mile. (Birch 1957)

A forgotten anniversary of Sydney’s Central Railway Station

26 September 1855

On 26 September 1855, the first train left the Sydney terminus, a ‘tin shed’, with great pomp and ceremony and thus began the great railways of New South Wales. The ‘tin shed’ railway terminus was replaced by two further railway station buildings, one opened in 1874, and the current imposing Victorian edifice of brick and sandstone in 1906.

The current 1906 Central Railway Station is the third station on the site and is a grand Victorian structure in the tradition of British railway stations demonstrating to the world the importance of rail travel in New South Wales at the beginning of the 20th century.

A marvellous day goes down in history

The colonial newspaper the Sydney Morning Herald reported on the 1855 railway opening in glowing terms as a marvel. The Herald reporter maintained that it demonstrated how the colony of New South Wales could match the rest of the world with a magnificent achievement, only a decade after convict transportation had been abolished. The newspaper report started this way:

The event yesterday was the triumph, not only of science over natural difficulties, but of the spirit of enlightenment and civilisation over prejudice and worldly mindedness. The great agent of civilization, the best and most effective servant progress, has been retained by the antipodean colonies of Australia within the same quarter century in which he became the liveried civilized vassal Europe. We have established a railway in this colony – we have achieved the great distinction which ranks us with those country who live and progress under impulses which modern science has seemed to indicate will work out the destinies of our race. (SMH, 27 September 1855)

The importance of the event to New South Wales cannot be under-estimated only 32 years after the world’s first public railway. The Stockton and  Darlington Railway was the first public railway to use steam locomotives and take passengers. The line opened in 1823 and eventually closed in 1863. 

The remains of the first Sydney railway station in 1871. The platform on the RHS later became the George Street Platform (No 11) (SARNSW)

Tin Shed

The original site of the 1855 ‘tin shed’ station was in ‘Cleveland Paddock’ located between Cleveland and Devonshire Streets and known as Redfern Station as it was near Redfern. The present Redfern station was officially called Eveleigh, yet the name Redfern Station for the Sydney Terminal stuck for both the first and second ‘Sydney’ stations.  It was indeed a ‘tin shed’ – a corrugated iron shed with a 30m long single wooden platform and was the terminus for the line for passengers from Parramatta. (Upton 2013)

According to Sydney Trains, the 1855 terminus was south of the present Central Railway Station, on the south side of the Devonshire Street tunnel. The oldest surviving structure from this period, and the oldest surviving structure on the New South Wales rail system, is the ‘overbridge’ running under Railway Square to Darling Harbour. Last used as a railway in 1984 it is now known as the Goods Line and is part of Sydney’s urban walkways, and an extension of the existing Devonshire Street pedestrian tunnel.

21-gun salute

At the official opening, the Governor’s Vice-Regal train left the Sydney terminus at 11.20 am to a 21-gun salute and great cheers from the crowd. Over 3,500 passengers travelled on the train service between Sydney and Parramatta Junction at Granville on the first day, with intermediate stations at Newtown, Ashfield, Burwood and Homebush. Trains left the Sydney terminal at 9, 11, 12, 1, 4.45, and 5 and departed from Parramatta Junction at 10 am in the morning and 2, 3, 4 and 5.30 in the afternoon. (Birch 1957)

The journey of 14 miles took around 50 minutes and first-class tickets cost 4/-, Second 3/-, and Third 2/-.

According to State Archives and Records in the first full year of operation, the rail service was used by over 350,000 passengers.

Toing and froing on rail gauge

The rail gauge used on the project determined the future of railways in New South Wales for the next 150 years. Initially, the Sydney Railway Company hired Irish-born engineer FW Shields who favoured 5 ft 6 in, but in 1850 he persuaded the colonial government to change to the Irish national gauge 5 ft 3 ins, which the British Government agreed to in 1851. Shields quit after a dispute in 1850 and Scottish engineer J Wallace was appointed. Wallace preferred the British Standard Gauge for 4 ft 8½ ins and in 1853 orders were forwarded to Great Britain for rolling stock, locomotives and rails on the British Standard Gauge. The rail gauge has remained the same ever since.

Locomotive No 1

New South Wales Government Locomotive No 1 on display at the Powerhouse Museum, Sydney. (Wikimedia/Hpeterswald 2012)

One of the locomotives ordered from Great Britain in 1853 was Locomotive No 1 and is on display at the Powerhouse Museum in Ultimo. According to the Powerhouse Museum, the locomotive was built in

England by Robert Stephenson & Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne, designed by J. E. McConnell of the London and North-Western Railway Company, and is a very rare survivor of a McConnell goods express locomotive of the early 1850s.

The locomotive arrived with four others in January 1855 and worked the line for 22 years. It was withdrawn from service in 1877 having hauled passengers and freight between Sydney, Campbelltown, Penrith and Richmond.

The locomotive is considered to be extremely rare and the only example of its type in the world.

Railway fever

New South Wales did not have the first steam railway in Australia, that honour went to the colony of Victoria. According to the National Museum of Australia, the first steam railway line opened in Melbourne on 12 September 1854. and ran between Flinders Street Station to Sandridge, now known as Port Melbourne. It was 2.5-mile (about four-kilometre) long and operated by the Melbourne and Hobson’s Bay Railway Company. A steam engine was made by Melbourne’s Robertson, Martin and Smith Engineering Works and it was the first to be produced in the Southern Hemisphere. The line is still in use today and is part of Melbourne’s light rail tram services.

The desire for a railway in New South Wales was not new and promoters, including Thomas Barker, had lobbied for a railway line from Sydney to Goulburn was first proposed in 1846. (SMH, 27 September 1855)

Turning the first sod on the Sydney to Parramatta Railway on 3 July1850. In F Hutchinson, New South Wales (1896) British Library.

The first sod

The first sod on the Sydney-Parramatta railway was turned on 3 July 1850 in the Cleveland Paddock by the Hon Mrs Keith Stewart in the ‘presence of his late Excellency Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy and a large concourse of people’. (SMH, 27 September 1855) The inclement weather with continuous rain was a warning and foreboding of the difficulties the project would encounter over the next five years.

The first section of the railway was constructed between Ashfield and Haslem’s Creek at a cost of £10,000. Works included earthworks, fencing and bridges for a single line and interestingly did not include the cost of the rails from the United Kingdom. Progress was slow and ran into problems straight away with labour shortages after the discovery of gold at Bathurst in 1852. The contractor ‘abandoned the contract’ when labour costs escalated and not even an offer by the colonial government of an increase of 30% in funding was not enough to save the project. (SMH, 27 September 1855)

Ceremony of turning the first turf of the first railway in Australia, by the Hon. Mrs. Keith Stewart … [picture] / from an original sketch by John Rae Esqre. Sydney Mail, October 1877. (NLA)

References

Birch, A. (1957). “The Sydney Railway Company, 1848-1855.” Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Australian Historical Society 3: 49-92.

Upton, S. (2013) “Central Railway Station: Through the Lens.”

Updated 13 August 2022; Originally posted 12 August 2022

Aesthetics · Art · Campbelltown Art Centre · Community identity · Festivals · Historical consciousness · Historical thinking · Leisure · Local History · Macarthur · Modernism · Place making · Sense of place · Sydney · Tourism

Sheer Fantasy Experience

Campbelltown Arts Centre continues its growing reputation for innovative, exciting and challenging art.

Campbelltown Art Centre Launch SheerFantasy 2018Apr Door&Curtain
Sheer Fantasy Experience is an innovating and challenging art exhibition at the Campbelltown Arts Centre 2018 (I Willis)

 

The Campbelltown Arts Centre hosted the opening of a whimsical exhibition curated by artist David Capra in April 2018.

Campbelltown Art Centre Launch SheerFantasy 2018Apr Curator
Curator David Capra at the launch of his exhibition Sheer Fantasy at the Campbelltown Arts Centre April 2018 (I Willis)

 

Within the exhibition fantasies abound in a world of the imagination where the world is re-interpreted by indulgence.

Campbelltown Art Centre Launch SheerFantasy 2018Apr Wall
Launch of the Sheer Fantasy Exhibition at the Campbelltown Arts Centre April 2018 (I Willis)

 

The exhibition notes state there are:

A number of newly commissioned works in which artists have contemplated private and internal landscapes that have long influenced their practices…bold architectural additions… provide an immersive experience of constructed escapisms that are stongly familiar…

Campbelltown Art Centre Launch SheerFantasy 2018Apr Truck
Launch of the Sheer Fantasy Exhibition at the Campbelltown Arts Centre April 2018 (I Willis)

 

Influences include Hollywood Westerns movie sets and the Golden Age of Cinema. Combined with performance art by Renny Kodgers in a truck where there are ‘slow conversations’.

Campbelltown Art Centre Launch SheerFantasy 2018Apr Crowd
The crowd at the launch of Sheer Fantasy Exhibition at the Campbelltown Arts Centre April 2018 (I Willis)

 

An interesting and challenging display.

Campbelltown Art Centre Launch SheerFantasy 2018Apr UFO
Launch of the Sheer Fantasy Exhibition at the Campbelltown Arts Centre April 2018 (I Willis)

 

The Sheer Fantasy Exhibition runs from 14 April to 3 June at the Campbelltown Arts Centre.

Colonialism · Governor Macquarie · Sydney

An overlooked city space of monumental importance

One of Sydney city’s hidden places is Macquarie Place, just off Bridge Street.  Tucked in between Loftus Street and Pitt Streets It is a little bit of green. Rather dull hidden from direct sunlight. A little bit tired, a little bit at heel amongst the skyscrapers and traffic congestion. A space in the city for todays world of financial gurus, hotshots and lawyers.

 

Macq Place c1926 SLNSW
Macquarie Place with Obelisk c1926 (SLNSW)

 

Macquarie Place Park is triangular shaped space that has seen the city change around over the 200 years. Once upon a time it was an open space in the elegant part of town for the colonial elite next to the Governor’s House precinct, on the high ground above the Tanks Stream.

The New South Wales State Heritage Inventory states

 Macquarie Place was the first formally laid out public space in Sydney and thus in Australia. Governor Macquarie was responsible for its formal layout, befitting its important situation at the centre of the colony. The park and the memorials standing in this park outline the development of Sydney since its foundation.

On the harbour side of the park The City of Sydney states that some of Sydney’s prominent early colonial businessmen held leases. They included  Simeon Lord, Thomas Randall, William Chapman, Andrew Thompson and Thomas and Mary Reibey.

The park was formalised when the sandstone obelisk designed by Francis Greenway was erected in 1818.  It was to mark Sydney’s first public square and the place from which all roads in New South Wales were to be measured.

The construction of Circular Quay between 1839 and 1847 saw an extension of a number of streets and took up a portion of the park. The reserve was enlarged in the 1970s when Macquarie Place (street) was closed and incorporated into the park.

Over the years its position at the centre of its world change. Government House was moved up to Macquarie Street and by the end of the Victorian period Macquarie Place was surrounded by the world of government administration and commercial offices of shipping merchants and shipping agents.

In the eyes of many the fate of Macquarie Place is representative of the changing faces of the city, from a working maritime harbour to part of the 24/7 global financial network which never turns off. The wheeling and dealing of today’s financial houses are reminiscent of the 17th and 18th century which shaped the future imperial London and the British Empire and appeared around the park in the late 19th century.

Macquarie Place has always had a global feel from those who passed through in the past in the Victorian and early colonial period and the international financial hotshots and hipsters of the present. It has been a transient place for those who occupied it and the current batch of latte sipping dealmakers are no different. The space is a site of both continuity and change.

The space was fill with monuments to the commercial pioneers (Mort) and relics from the seafaring age (Sirius anchor) and the symbols of power of colonial administrators. Macquarie Place monuments represent the changing period of the usage of the city and the world.

In 1907 the anchor and canon from the HMS Sirius (1780-1790) were place in Macquarie Place. HMS Sirius was one of the naval escorts of the First Fleet out to the founding of the New South Wales colony in 1788. The anchor was brought to Sydney after HMS Sirius was wrecked at Norfolk Island in 1790. The HMS Sirius was built in 1780-1781 as an Eastern Indian trader and named Berwick of 510 tons. It was purchased by the British Admiralty as a store ship in 1781 and renamed HMS Sirius in 1786. It was armed with 10 canons, carried 160 men and could do 10 knots with a strong wind.

There is the bronze statue of Thomas Sutcliffe Mort. The dedication on the  plinth:

 A pioneer of Australian resources, a founder of Australian industries, one who established our wool market.

Mort (1816-1878) arrived in Sydney in 1838 with his parents. He was a successful and flamboyant Sydney businessman, auctioneer, mine owner, pastoralist, manufacturer, horticulturalist and churchman. He lived at Darling Point where he was a keen gardener.

 

Unveiling Thomas Mort Statue 1887 (Wikimedia)
Unveiling Thomas Mort Statue 1887 (Wikimedia)

 

There is also the 1908 domed toilet building with Edwardian Art Nouveau ironwork, and an 1857 cast iron drinking fountain.

The beginning of the Remembrance Driveway from Sydney to Canberra is marked by two plane trees planted by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in 1954.

The New South Wales State Heritage Inventory states:

Macquarie Place is now the oldest town square in Australia. Together with Hyde Park, it is also the oldest urban park in Australia and has been in continuous operation as a public space for at least 195 years.

 

What the park does do is provide a breath of fresh air between the city towers that now enclose it. Today Macquarie Place  is a world of cafes which are frequented by Sydney’s financial gurus who determine the future of Australia. The Victorian edifices to colonial administration are silent awaiting the wishes of latest rent seeking developers.

Read more about Macquarie Place at

City of Sydney

NSW State Heritage Inventory

Anne Marie Whitaker, ‘Macquarie Place’, Dictionary of Sydney

Macarthur · Sydney's rural-urban fringe · Uncategorized

Development of Sydney’s urban fringe

Sydney’s urban sprawl invades the Macarthur region again

Sydney’s urban growth is about to invade the Macarthur region yet again. This is a re-run of the planning disasters in Campbelltown of the late 1970s. These planning decisions were originally part of the 1968 Sydney Region Outline Plan and the 1973 Three Cities Plan for Campbelltown, Camden, Appin. These plans were grossly over-optimistic at the time and only made an appearance in the Camden LGA in the 1980s at Mount Annan and Currans Hill. Tracts of land were sold off for housing in 1973 including part of Camden Park Estate, while historic buildings in Camden were demolished – Royal Hotel.

The areas that are part of the current proposal are: Appin & West Appin, Wilton Junction, South Campbelltown, Menangle Park, Mount Gilead and Menangle areas.

Read more @ Massive boost to housing supply for Greater Sydney with biggest release of land in 10 years (ABC News)

and more  @  Greater Macarthur Land Release Investigation (NSW Department of Planning and Environment)

Inspect the map for the proposed land releases @ Map

Read about land release at Menangle Park here  (Urban Growth NSW)

Mount Annan around 2002 CHS2005
Mount Annan, NSW, a new suburb on Sydney’s urban fringe, 2002 (CHS2005/P.Mylrea)

Sydney’s metropolitan fringe is a theatre for the creation and loss of collective memories, cultural myths and community grieving around cultural icons, traditions and rituals. European settlement took the dreaming of the Aborigines and then had its own dreaming removed by an invasion from the east in the form of Sydney’s urban growth. The re-making of place in and around the fringe community of Camden illustrates the destruction and re-construction of cultural landscapes. Locals dream of retaining the aesthetics of an inter-war country town and in doing so have created an illusion of a historical myth of a ‘country town idyll’. In the new suburbs of Oran Park, Mt Annan and Harrington Park urbanites have invaded the area drawn by developer spin, which promised to fulfil hopes and dreams and never really lives up to the hype. Unfulfilled expectations mean that Sydney’s rural-urban fringe is a zone of transition where waves of invasion and succession have created perceptions of reality and all that is left is imaginings.

Read more at the Sydney Journal

Read more about the suburbs on Sydney’s rural-urban fringe at the Dictionary of Sydney

Read more about the country town idyll at Camden NSW